The city is located at an altitude of 2,328 meters above sea level, the lowest part of the city is at an altitude of 2,041 meters above sea level in the sector called Huayco in the district of Uchumayo and the highest is located at 2,810 meters above sea level.

The central part of the city is crossed by the Chili River from north to southwest, which in its path forms a valley, called the Arequipa Valley or Chili Valley, which is protected to the north and east by the Andean mountain range and to the south and west by the low ranges of hills.

The valley plays a determining role, the valley of Arequipa, open to the coast and the mountains, together with its condition as an oasis between the sandy desert and the highland puna, forms an intermediate and reasonable option for the articulation of communication systems and its own development. the same current location that allows strategically articulating the coast and the mountains, being a city in the middle of both regions.

From the city you can see a series of volcanic cones that form snow-capped peaks such as Misti, Chachani and Pichu Pichu, its territory is rugged due to the presence of the Andes Mountain Range in the western part of the continent; It is characterized by the thick layers of volcanic lava that cover large areas of its geography.

South latitude: 14º 36´ 6″.
West longitude: Between meridians 71º 59´ 39″ and 75º 5´ 52″.
Most important rivers: Tambo, Ocoña, Majes, and Chili.
Volcanoes: Coropuna (6,425 masl), Ampato (6,288 masl), Solimana (6,093 masl), Hualca Hualca (6,025 masl), Chachani (6,057 masl), Misti (5,822 masl) and Pichu Pichu (5,664 masl).
Mountain ranges: Cordillera de Ampato, Cordillera Chila and Cordillera Volcánica
Abras: Apo Apacheta (5,100 masl) in Castilla; Chucura (4,720 masl) in Caylloma and Visca (4,650 masl) in La Unión and Condesuyos.
Islands: Hornillos, Blanca, Casca and Saragosa.
Lagoons: Mucurca and Salinas.